Clean technology, or cleantech, generally refers to products or services that improve productivity or efficiency whilst reducing costs, energy consumption, waste and/or pollution. Cleantech makes use of renewable energy and renewable materials and can offer many additional benefits whilst being as competitive, if not more so, than conventional technologies. Nanotechnology is already a key instrument in creating cleantech and the possibilities for novel cleantech applications utilising nanotechnology are vast. Nanotechnology has been used to create cheap and flexible solar panels, fuel borne catalysts that increase the efficiency of diesel, fuel cells with zero emissions and lighter, stronger materials that help reduce fuel use of vehicles that would be traditionally made from steel.

Nanotechnology utilised to create cleantech has the potential to create products or services that are greatly more competitive due to lower costs, greater efficiency and reduced impact on the environment. As awareness of global climate change and human impact on the environment increases, consumers are looking towards products and services that have less of an impact of the environment.